TerbineLink is designed to operate in the background, syncing bidirectionally with OEM cloud-based vehicle data systems, essentially being invisible to drivers so that they continue to utilize the in-dash infotainment and navigation displays plus mobile applications they are accustomed to. OEMs keep the relationships with their customers whilst introducing a powerful new back end tool set that makes for a highly attractive and competitive driver experience , independent of the actual charging interface (NACS or CCS or MCS). Terbine is building true partnerships with OEMs and the myriad of charging network and individual charging station owners, the power grid, state and local governments to bring them onto the TerbineLink platform. OEMs building proprietary charging networks have the option of licensing the platform as a cloud- or edge-based EV data handling environment.